ฟรี DipWSET D2: Flashcards ธุรกิจไวน์    

หมายเลขเด็ค 4

คำแนะนำก่อนเริ่ม:    

ฉันขอแนะนำให้คุณทิ้งการ์ดไว้ในลำดับเริ่มต้นและใช้ตัวเลือก "สับเปลี่ยน" เฉพาะเมื่อคุณเชี่ยวชาญทั้งสำรับ (= 0 ผิดพลาด)    

อ่านคำศัพท์ในการ์ดและตอบคำถามของคุณ คลิกที่ปุ่ม “ตรวจสอบคำตอบ” เพื่อตรวจสอบความรู้ของคุณ คลิกที่ “รับทราบ!” ถ้าคำตอบของคุณถูกต้อง    

คลิกที่ “ต้องการการฝึกเพิ่มเติม” เพื่อตรวจสอบไพ่ที่ส่วนท้ายของสำรับ และลองตอบอีกครั้ง    

คลิกที่ปุ่ม “สับเปลี่ยน” เพื่อเปลี่ยนลำดับไพ่    

ขอให้โชคดี!!    

[คิวเด็ค]

[h] DipWSET D2 SET 4

[i] DipWSET D2 – แฟลชการ์ดธุรกิจไวน์
ชุดที่ 4

ฉันขอแนะนำให้คุณทิ้งการ์ดไว้ในลำดับเริ่มต้นและใช้ตัวเลือก "สับเปลี่ยน" เฉพาะเมื่อคุณเชี่ยวชาญทั้งสำรับ (= 0 ผิดพลาด)

– อ่านข้อกำหนดในบัตรและให้คำตอบของคุณ
– คลิกที่ปุ่ม “ตรวจคำตอบ” เพื่อตรวจสอบความรู้ของคุณ
- คลิกที่ "รับทราบ!" ถ้าคำตอบของคุณถูกต้อง
– คลิกที่ “ต้องฝึกฝนเพิ่มเติม” เพื่อตรวจสอบไพ่ที่ส่วนท้ายของสำรับและลองตอบอีกครั้ง
– คลิกที่ปุ่ม “สับเปลี่ยน” เพื่อเปลี่ยนลำดับไพ่

[เริ่ม]

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] LEGISLATIONS IMPACTING THE COSTS OF WINES

[a] 1- TAXES

2- TRADE BARRIERS

3- MINIMUM UNIT PRICING

4- DUTIES

5- SUBSIDIES

6- LABELLING LAWS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] EXCISE DUTIES IN THE UK

[a] PAYABLE ON WINE ENTERING THE UK UNLESS STORED IN A “BONDED WAREHOUSE”

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] 2 OPTIONS REGARDING DUTIES PAYMENT
FOR WINES ENTERING THE UK

[ก]

1- IF STORED IN OWN WAREHOUSE = WHEN IT ENTERS THE COUNTRY

2- IF STORED IN “BONDED WAREHOUSE” = DUTIES PAYABLE WHEN WINE LEAVE THE BONDED WAREHOUSE
(when ordered) 

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DESCRIBE FINANCIAL ADVANTAGE OF “BONDED WAREHOUSE”

[a] 1- BONDED WAREHOUSE STORAGE COSTS COVERED LARGELY
BY ECONOMIES ON EXCISE DUTIES

2- CASH FLOW SITUATION IS IMPROVED
(not need for up front cash)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] IMPACT OF IMPORT DUTIES ON PRODUCERS’ DECISION

[a] MAY DISSUADE TO EXPORT IN CERTAIN COUNTRIES
(abandon a market)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] IMPACT OF TRADE TARIFFS IN THE E.U. MARKET
(regarding US wines)

[a] FEW MID-PRICED US WINES ON THE EUROPEAN MARKET BECAUSE THEY CANNOT COMPETE WITH WINES FROM CHILE & SOUTH AFRICA
(who benefits from Trade Agreements)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] IMPACT OF CURRENCY FLUTUATIONS ON THE COSTS OF WINES

[a] CAN AFFECT WINE PRICES CONSIDERABLY

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] 8 OPTIONS TO PROTECT AGAINST CURRENCY FLUCTUATIONS

[a] 1- OPTION ON THE PHYSICAL WINE
(with the producer)

2- OPTION ON A CURRENCY
(with a Bank)

3- CONTRACT TO FIX THE PRICE
(with the producer)

4- CONTRACT TO FIX THE CURRENCY RATE
(with a Bank or the producer)

5- TRADING IN EUR or USD

6- OPEN FOREIGN CURRENCY ACCOUNT AT LOCAL BANK

7- OPEN ACCOUNT IN AN OVERSEAS BANK

8- BUY CURRENCY IN ADVANCE TO COVER A FUTURE ORDER

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DEFINITION OF AN OPTION
(currency fluctations hedging)

[a] PAY A PREMIUM UPFRONT (option cost) IN ORDER TO RESERVE A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF PHYSICAL WINE (or currency) THAT COULD BE PAID AT A PRICE SET IN ADVANCE ON A SET DATE (or period)

IF THE OPTION IS ON PHYSICAL WINE (and not on a currency) THE PRODUCER MUST SET ASIDE THE AGREED VOLUME OF WINE

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN OPTION AND ENTERING A FIXED CONTRACT
(in currency fluctuations hedging)

[a] IN AN OPTION, THE IMPORTER CAN DECLINE THE WINE

IN A FIXED CONTRACT, THE IMPORTER MUST TAKE THE WINE
(even if the actual rate is more interesting than the contracted rate)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] ADVANTAGES OF TRADING IN USD or EUR

[a] 1- EUR and USA HAVE HISTORICALLY SHOWN TO BE MORE STABLE (and more widely accepted) CURRENCIES

2- IMPORTERS HAVE MORE CERTAINTIES ON PRICE

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] WHY PRODUCERS MAY CHARGE A PREMIUM WHEN ENTERING A FIXED CONTRACT WITH A FOREIGN IMPORTER

[a] BECAUSE IT SHITS THE CURRENCY RISK TO THE PRODUCER

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] BUYING CURRENCIES TO COVER SPECIFIC ORDERS
(characterictics)

[a] 1- REQUIRES PRO-ACTIVE STANCE

2- REQUIRES IN-HOUSE COMPETENCIES

3- NOT CONSIDERED SPECULATION

4- USUAL TECHNIQUE FOR LARGE IMPORTERS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DISADVANTAGES OF OPENING AN ACCOUNT IN AN OVERSEAS BANK

[a] ALL THE DISADVANTAGES OF OPENING
A FOREIGN CURRENCY ACCOUNT AT A LOCAL BANK
+
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DIFFERENCE
IN BANKING REGULATIONS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] ADVANTAGES OF BEING AN ESTATE PRODUCER

[a] 1- CAN CONTROL THE ENTIRE PROCESS
(growing, producing, bottling)

2- CHOOSE THE STYLE OF WINE

3- ENSURE QUALITY
(at all stages)

4- KEEP ALL THE “PRODUCTION PROFIT”

5- IF SELLS DIRECTLY TO CUSTOMERS = KEEP ALL THE PROFITS
= PRODUCTION PROFITS + DISTRIBUTION PROFITS

6- AUTHENTICITY FACTOR VALUED BY CUSTOMERS

7- ENABLE STORY TELLING

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] MAIN DISADVANTAGES OF BEING AN ESTATE PRODUCER

[a] 1- SUPPORT FULL MANAGEMENT & INDIRECT COSTS

2- SUPPORT EQUIPMENT COSTS
(direct capital costs)

3- SUPPORT FULL COSTS OF RUNNING THE ESTATE
(direct operational costs)

4- SUPPORT THE FULL RISK OF VINTAGE VARIATION
(both quality & quantity)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] BEING A GROWER IS ATTRACTIVE FOR

[a] OWNERS OF SMALL VINEYARDS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] WHY VINEYARD OWNERS MAY DECIDE TO BECOME SOLELY GROWERS

[a] 1- BECAUSE THE VINEYARD SIZE IS TOO SMALL

2- BECAUSE OF THE HIGH CAPITAL COSTS REQUIRED
(buying or hiring equipments)

3- BECAUSE THEY DO NOT WANT TO MARKET & SELL THEIR WINES

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] KEY ADVANTAGES OF BEING A GROWER

[a] 1- GENERATES EARLIER CASH FLOWS
(payment due when grapes are sold)

2- NO HEAVY WINEMAKING INVESTMENTS

3- NO WINEMAKING OPERATING COSTS

4- NO NEED FOR MARKETING

5- GROWERS CAN FOCUS THEIR EFFORTS
ON PRODUCING THE BEST GRAPES POSSIBLE

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DISADVANTAGES OF BEING A GROWER

[a] 1- HIGH RISK OF VINTAGE VARIATIONS
(quality & quantity)

2- FLUCTUATIONS IN SUPPLY & DEMAND
(reduced prices + not able to sell all)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] 2 OPTIONS FOR GROWERS TO SELL THEIR GRAPES

[a] 1- ENTER INTO A CONTRACT
(1 or more vintages)

2- SELL GRAPES ON SPOT MARKET

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] ADVANTAGES FOR GROWERS TO ENTER INTO A CONTRACT
TO SELL THEIR GRAPES 

[a] 1- GIVES GROWER CERTAINTY TO SELL GRAPES

2- LONGER TERM CONTRACTS
(greater security & strong relationships)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] PROS & CONS OF SELLING GRAPES ON SPOT MARKETS
(for growers)

[a] 1- PRO = HIGHER REWARD 
(if supply < demand) = HIGHER PRICES

2- CON = HIGHER RISK
(if supply > demand) = LOWER PRICES

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] GROWERS-PRODUCERS
(definition)

[a] GROWERS THAT PRODUCE WINE FROM THEIR GRAPES & SELL IT
TO MERCHANTS THAT MATURE & BOTTLE IT

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] GROWER-PRODUCER FAIRLY COMMON IN
(which region)

[a] BURGUNDY

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] GROWER-PRODUCER MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

[a] 1- LOSS OF CONTROL OVER THE FINISHED WINE

2- MERCHANTS CHOOSE THE LENGTH & TYPE OF MATURATION

3- MERCHANTS CAN BLEND WINES FROM DIFFERENT PRODUCERS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] GROWER-PRODUCER ADVANTAGES
(for grower-producer)

[a] 1- DO NOT NEED TO INCUR COSTS OF MATURATION

2- DO NOT SUPPORT MARKETING COSTS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] GROWER-PRODUCER MAIN DISADVANTAGE
(for grower-producer)

[a] MAKE A SMALLER PROFIT THAN IF THEY WERE TO SELL FINISHED WINE

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] MERCHANTS
(definition)

[a] = NEGOCIANT

= BUY IMMATURE WINE (or grapes) TO MATURE IT (+make wine if buying grapes) AND SELL IT UNDER MERCHANTS’ NAMES (or merchants’ brands)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] ADVANTAGE OF MERCHANT ROLE
(for merchants)

[a] 1- DO NOT NEED TO BUY THE VINEYARDS
(no capital costs)
(beneficial in expensive wine regions)

2- DO NOT NEED TO MANAGE THE VINEYARDS
(no operating costs)

3- CAN BUY GRAPES or UNFINISHED WINES
FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES
(flexibility & security)

4- CAN MAKE THEIR OWN WINES
ALONGSIDE THEIR MERCHANT WINES

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] RISKS OF BEING A MERCHANT

[a] 1- NO CONTROL OVER GRAPE GROWING PROCESS

2- NO CONTROL OVER WINEMAKING PROCESS
(when buy unfinished wine)

3- MAY BE FORCED TO TURN TO THE SPOT MARKET

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] HOW MERCHANTS CAN REDUCE THEIR RISKS

[a] 1- PRODUCE THEIR OWN WINES ALONGSIDE THEIR MERCHANT ACTIVITIES

2- GIVE TECHNICAL SUPPORT & ADVICES TO GROWERS
(to ensure quality)

3- ENTER LONG-TERM CONTRACTS WITH PRODUCERS

4- CAN MIX WINES (or grapes) FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
(flexibility & protection)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] MICRO NEGOCIANTS
(definition)

[a] SPECIALISE IN SMALL PRODUCTION WINES,
USUALLY FROM INDIVIDUAL VINEYARDS

WORK CLOSELY WITH GROWERS FOR BETTER QUALITY

CAN ACHIEVE SUPER-PREMIUM PRICES

RISE OF MICRO-NEGOCIANTS IN BURGUNDY

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] 2 REGIONS WHERE MERCHANTS OPERATE DIFFERENTLY

[a] 1- IN BURGUNDY = MORE INVOLVED IN PRODUCTION

2- IN BORDEAUX = DEAL MORE IN WINE
THAT HAS ALREADY BEEN MADE 

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] EN PRIMEUR
(definition)

[a] = WINE FUTURES

= METHOD OF SELLING WINE BEFORE IT HAS BEEN BOTTLED

= BUYING WINE WHILE IT IS STILL IN BARREL A
ND REMAINS IN THE PRODUCER’S CELLAR
UNTIL READY FOR BOTTLING. THE WINE WILL BE DELIVERED
ONCE IT HAS BEEN BOTTLED, FEW YEARS LATER

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] ADVANTAGE OF THE “EN PRIMEUR” SYSTEM FOR THE SELLER

[a] 1- EARLIER CASH FLOW

2- ESPECIALLY INTERESTING FOR WINES
WITH LONG MATURATION

3- BENEFITS FROM AN ALREADY ESTABLISHED MARKET & BUYERS (merchants…)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] ADVANTAGES OF THE “EN PRIMEUR” SYSTEM FOR BUYERS
(e.g. merchant)

[a] 1- CHEAPER & EASIER TO BUY WINE AT THIS STAGE

2- PRICES CAN GO UP ONCE MATURED & BOTTLED

3- MAY BE THE ONLY OPPORTUNITY TO BUY CERTAIN WINES
(small quantities, prestigious, high demand…)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DISADVANTAGE OF “EN PRIMEUR” SYSTEM FOR 

[a] EARN SMALLER PROFITS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DISADVANTAGE OF THE “EN PRIMEUR” SYSTEM FOR THE BUYER
(e.g. merchant)

[a] EVEN THE MOST PRESTIGIOUS WINES CAN SEE THEIR PRICES GO DOWN
(no guarantee)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] USUAL TYPES OF WINES SOLD “EN PRIMEUR”
(give 2 criteria + give 4 examples)

[a] 1- WINES WHO BENEFIT FROM CELLAR AGING (usually > 18 months)

2- THOSE WHO ARE PRIZED BY INVESTORS

EXAMPLES: BURGUNDY, BORDEAUX, SUPER TUSCANS, VINTAGE PORTS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] GROWER-MERCHANT
(definition)

[a] WHO OWN VINEYARDS AND PRODUCE WINES FROM THEM
ALONGSIDE WINES FROM BOUGHT-IN GRAPES

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] EXAMPLE OF FAMOUS GROWER-MERCHANT IN THE RHONE VALLEY

[a] E. GUIGAL

COTE ROTIE, CROZES-HERMITAGE & GIGONDAS = OWN VINEYARDS

STANDARD COTE DU RHONE = BOUGHT-IN GRAPES

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] EXAMPLE OF FAMOUS GROWER-MERCHANT IN BURGUNDY

[a] DOMAINE DUJAC

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] 2 STRATEGIES OF GROWER-MERCHANTS BRANDING

[a] 1- E. GUIGAL = own wine + bought-in = UNDER SAME BRAND NAME

2- DOMAINE DUJAC = UNDER DIFFERENT BRAND NAMES
= from bought-in = DUJAC PERE & FILS
= from own vineyards = DOMAINE DUJAC

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] CO-OPERATIVES
(definition)

[a] 1- OWNED BY A GROUP OF GROWERS

2- PRODUCE & SELL WINES
FROM GRAPES GROWN BY ITS MEMBERS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] ADVANTAGES OF THE CO-OPERATIVE

[a] 1- POOL FINANCIAL RESOURCES

2- AFFORD MORE EXPENSIVE EQUIPMENTS & EXPERTISE

3- REDUCED COSTS BY BULK-BUYING

4- POOL MARKETING & SALES EFFORTS

5- CAN CREATE, MARKET & VALUE SUCCESSFUL BRANDS

6- CAN GIVE MEMBERS ACCESS TO 
– expert viticultural services
– expert winemaking services
– advice on Marketing, Packaging
& Sales services

7- OWNED BY MEMBERS

8-WORK ON DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLE
= MANAGERS MUST CONSULT
MEMBERS BEFORE KEY DECISIONS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DOWNSIDE OF THE CO-OPERATIVE

[a] DECISION-MAKING PROCESS CAN BE SLOW & CUMBERSOME 

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] 2 OPTIONS OF PAYMENT FOR CO-OPERATIVE MEMBERS

[a] MEMBERS RECEIVE A % OF ANNUAL CO-OPERATIVE’S PROFITS BASED ON

– OPTION 1 = VOLUME OF GRAPES BROUGHT

– OPTION 2 = BASED ON THE QUALITY
OF THE FRUITS BROUGHT

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] CUSTOM-CRUSH FACILITIES
(definition)

[a] IT IS A VARIANT OF THE CO-OPERATIVE MODEL
WHERE GROWERS DO NOT OWN THE WINEMAKING FACILITIES.
THEY ARE OWNED BY A PRIVATE INDEPENDENT COMPANY
THAT WHO CHARGES GROWERS
EACH TIME THEY WANT TO USE ITS SERVICES.

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] WHERE CUSTOM-CRUSH FACILITIES ARE MAINLY FOUND

[a] IN NORTH AMERICA (CAFLIFORNIA)

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] INTRINSIC ADVANTAGES OF THE CUSTOM-CRUSH FACILITIES
(compared to the co-operative model)

[a] 1- CAN MAKE QUICK DECISION

2- DOES NOT REQUIRE AGREEMENTS OF THE MEMBERS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] ADVANTAGES OF THE CUSTOM-CRUSH FACILITIES MODEL FOR GROWERS

[a] 1- NO NEED TO INVEST IN EXPENSIVE
WINEMAKING FACILITIES & EQUIPMENTS

2- GROWERS CAN FOCUS ATTENTION ON GROWING
THE BEST FRUITS POSSIBLE & ON MARKETING

3- CAN BENEFIT FROM WINEMAKING EXPERTISE
OFFERED BY THE CUSTOM-CRUSH FACILITY COMPANY

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] DISADVANTAGES OF THE CUSTOM-CRUSH FACILITIES

[a] 1- LOSS OF WINEMAKING AUTONOMY
(dates of crushing linked to availabilities…)

2- PAY EACH TIME USES THE FACILITY

3- NEED GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH GROWERS
TO UNDERSTAND AND MEET
THEIR RESPECTIVE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] VIRTUAL WINEMAKERS/WINERIES
(definition)

[a] WINEMAKERS WHO DO NOT OWN THE VINEYARDS
NOR THE WINEMAKING FACILITIES

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] VIRTUAL WINEMAKERS/WINERIES
(where are they mainly found)

[a] MAINLY IN NORTH AMERICA

[q unit=”2″ topic=”4″] VIRTUAL WINEMAKERS/WINERIES
(how do they work)

[a] 1- BUY GRAPES OR JUICE

2- RENT SOME WINEMAKERS FACILITIES
(or custom crush facilities)

3- MARKET & SELL THE WINE
UNDER OWN BRAND

[x] งานดี!! [เริ่มต้นใหม่]

[/qdeck]

thTH