The primary water-conducting tissue of vascular plants is called “xylem.” It collaborates with the ‘Phloem’ which is the food-conducting tissue. In woody stem tissues, the secondary xylem forms the wood.

Each year, only one ring of Xylem is created, with springtime vessels being larger than fall-formed ones. This is how the number of annual rings is used to determine a plant’s age.

The grapevine’s broad, porous vessels contribute to the vines’ characteristically water-conductive wood. In Autumn, however, vessels may become blocked by structures which plug the tubes, called tyloses, formed by the ‘ballooning’ of adjacent cell material into the vessel through pits in the walls. Some vessels remain functional for up to seven years, but most become blocked by tyloses in their second or third year.

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