The primary food-conducting tissue of vines and other vascular plants is called ‘Phloem’. A system of veins or vascular bundles known as “Phloem” is made up of a variety of cell types that coexist with the Xylem (the water-conducting tissue).

Despite their close proximity, ‘Phloem’ and ‘Xylem’ are completely different: a Phloem has thin-walled tubes containing a strongly sugared sap under positive pressure that moves along from areas of strong to weak concentrations; a Xylem is made up of large, strong-walled tubes that are used to transport a dilute mineral solution under negative pressure (tension) by forces created by transpiration.

During the thickening of woody parts, the ‘Cambium’ produces cells on the outside that become the new season’s phloem; in later years theses cells are added to the bark of the vine.

The rare among deciduous trees property of grapevine wood’s phloem is that it can revive after the subsequent budbreak and continue to work for three to four years.

The vascular system permeates throughout the plant, but bundles of veins are particularly dense in the leaf blade, as can be seen by holding it up to the light. This high density makes it easier for newly produced sucrose to be loaded into phloem tubes for transportation outside of the leaf.

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