Free Flashcards for DipWSET D1: Wine Production
DECK Number 4
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[h] DipWSET D1 SET 4 The Vineyard
[i] DipWSET D1 – Wine Production Flashcards
SET 4 The Vineyard
I RECOMMEND YOU LEAVE THE CARDS IN THE INITIAL ORDER AND USE THE “SHUFFLE” OPTION ONLY WHEN YOU MASTER THE WHOLE DECK (= 0 MISTAKE)
– Read the Term on the Card and give your answer
– Click on “Check the Answer” button to check your knowledge
– Click on “Got It!” if your answer was correct
– Click on “Need more practice” to review the card at the end of the deck and try answering another time
– Click on “Shuffle” button to change cards order
[q] The growing environment depends on the ____ of the vineyard
Site selection influences style, quality and price of wines, just as the desired style, quality and desired price of wines influence site selection
If you wanted to produce high volume, consistent, inexpensive or mid-level wines that have high yields of healthy grapes, what is the ideal site you would consider for your vineyard?
A flat, fertile site in a warm, dry climate
- Flat = easy mechanization
- Fertile = high yields
- Warm = adequate ripening
- Dry = low fungal disease pressure
What are two potential risks when planting vineyards on flat, fertile sites in a warm and dry climate?
Lack of concentration in the grapes;
Lack of freshness in the grapes (jammy aromas)
[q] If you were looking to produce premium or super-premium wines, what would you have to consider when selecting your vineyard site?
What climate are you in?
if cool, consider warmer sites; if warm, consider cooler sites;
Price of land;
Is the site in a desirable appellation?
Is the soil suitable for the grapes you want to grow?
What are the location, layout and topography of the site?
Are there slopes on the site and how steep are they?
this can indicate mechanical or hand harvesting;
Does the site require irrigation? How is that water sourced and what will your water costs be?
How easy or difficult is it to access the vineyard?
How close or far away is the site from towns, supplies, labor?
[q] Prior to establishing a vineyard, what are four main factors a grape grower must assess and, potentially, rectify?
Drainage and structure of the soil;
Mineral composition of the soil;
Presence of pests or unwanted plants;
Topography of the vineyard may be altered
Which one of the following factors influences root penetration, water drainage, nutrient holding capacity and workability?
Presence of pests
Mineral composition of soil
[a] Soil structure
What is the subsoiling process?
The breaking down of an impenatrable layer of soil that promotes drainage and makes the soil easier to cultivate once the vineyard has been established
When establishing a vineyard, if a grape grower determines that their soil is acidic, what substance can they plough in to balance the soil?
[a] Lime (calcium-based substance)
What are three general considerations a grape grower must make when deciding what to plant?
[q] When determining which grape varieties to plant in a new vineyard, what climate factors must be considered?
Time of budding
Annual life cycle duration (when does it ripen)
When determining which grape varieties to plant in a new vineyard, what non-climate factors must be considered?
Style of wine
What is the main reason for grafting grapevines onto rootstocks?
To protect the vine from phylloxera
Many rootstocks are hybrids of two different vine species which takes advantage of desirable characteristics from both species
[q] What four factors help a grape grower determine which rootstock to use?
- Which pests live in the vineyard?
- Water availability / does the are see drought?
- Soil pH – how acidic is the soil?
- Is the rootstock low, moderate, or high vigor?
In the EU, grapes for PDO wines cannot be harvested from vines that are younger than ___ years old.
For the first two or three years of a vine’s life, what is common practice for the grape grower to help the vine’s growth?
Remove inflorescences as they form so that the young vine can concentrate its resources on growth
[q] A vine produces its maximum yields of fruit between the age of ___ and ___.
10 and 40
[q] What is the minimum age a vine has to be in order for the label to have the term “Old Vines” on it?
There is no minimum – for one grape grower a 30-year old vine might be considered “old vine”; for another grape grower the vine might be 100-years old
[q] What are four considerations to be made when determining soil health?
How much organic matter and humus is in the soil
Number of living organisms in the soil
Total amount of available nutrients in the soil
[q] Why is having bare, moist soil in the vineyard desirable (read: no weeds, cover crops, or mulches)?
The soil absorbs heat during the day and releases that heat at night, reducing frost risk
[q] What are the two main categories of fertilizers?
[q] From what are organic fertilizers derived?
Fresh or composted plant or animal material, such as manure or slurry
[q] What is ‘green manure’?
Cover crops that are grown and mown into the soil to decompose and provide nutrients
[q] What are the advantages of organic fertilizers?
Cheap / free
If high in humus, good for soil structure + water retention
Provide nutrition for soil organisms
Their nutrients become available to the vine gradually as the nutrients must be broken down by organisms in the soil before the vine can soak them up
[q] What are the disadvantages to organic fertilizers?
Requires labor to incorporate the fertilizers into the soil
Even though they might be cheap or free, their bulkiness makes them expensive to transport and spread
Mineral fertilizers are extracted from:
The ground or chemically manufactured
Nearby bodies of water
Local stones steeped in a biodynamic solution
The ground or chemically manufactured
What are the advantages to mineral fertilizers?
They can be more tailored than organic fertilizers
Because they’re already in inorganic form, they are more readily available to the vines
More concentrated than organic fertilizers
Cheaper to transport and distribute
[q] What are the disadvantages to mineral fertilizers?
- No benefit for soil organisms;
- Do not improve soil structure;
- More expensive than organic fertilizers
[q] Define ‘cultivation.’
It is a method of weed control that involves ploughing the soil to cut or disturb the weeds’ root systems
[q] What are three advantages of cultivation?
Can be used in organic and biodynamic viticulture
Enables fertilizer and mown cover crops to be incorporated into the soil at the same time as removing weeds
[q] What are the disadvantages of cultivation?
Recurrent cultivation can damage soil structure and ecology (breakdown of organic matter and destruction of habitats);
Expensive: requires both skilled labor and machinery;
Encourages weeds to grow back;
Can increase vine vigor because there is no competition for water or nutrients;
though cultivation can be an advantage in low vigour sites (poor soils and/or lack of water)
Herbicides are chemical sprays that kill:
[q] What are three advantages of herbicides?
Cheap in re: labour and machinery requirements
Highly effective, especially in the under-row area
Less damaging to soil structure than cultivation
[q] What are disadvantages of herbicides?
Can potentially poison the operator, consumer and environment
Discourage vineyard ecosystems
Weeds can become resistant and therefore dosage may need to increase (or different chemicals need to be used)
Can increase vine vigor since there is no competition for water or nutrients
Not allowed in organic and biodynamic viticulture
(Routine use of glyphosate, the most common contact herbicide, has given grape growers a particular problem with glyphosate-resistant ryegrass, especially in South Africa)
[q] What are the advantages of animals providing weed control (letting them graze in the vineyard)?
Can be used in organic and biodynamic viticulture
Animals provide vineyard with manure
Animals can be a source of meat for humans
What are the disadvantages to allowing animals to graze in the vineyard?
- Vines must be trained high enough – or the grazing must be conducted out of the growing season – otherwise animals might eat leaves and grapes
- General care for the animals can get expensive (food, shelter, veterinarian visits)
- Animals are often susceptible to vineyard pesticides
[q] What are cover crops?
Plants that are allowed to grow (either as natural vegetation or purposely planted) between rows that have a beneficial effect on the vineyard.
Cover crops should be matched to the needs of the vineyard
Why might cover crops be grown in vineyards?
- To suppress weeds
- Improve soil structure
- Compete with the vine for nutrient and water availability in fertile sites
- Manage soil erosion
- Enhance biodiversity
- Provide a surface to drive on
[q] Give two examples of cover crops
- Legumes (e.g. beans, clover)
- Cereals (e.g. ryegrass, oats)
[q] What are four advantages of cover crops?
- No chemicals
- Increases soil biological activity and biodiversity in the vineyard (good for organic and biodynamic viticulture)
- Can influence vine vigor through competition for water and nutrients
- Provides traction for machinery, which is good in climates with high annual rainfall
[q] What are the disadvantages to cover crops?
- Reduction in vine vigor (vines compete for water and nutrients)
- Mowing the under-row area is difficult, especially near vine trunks, which has time and labor implications
- Unsuitable for steep-sloped vineyards (slippery when wet)
[q] What is ‘mulching’?
Spreading of matter onto the vineyard soil to suppress weed growth
[q] What are mulches made of?
Biodegradable materials (e.g. straw or bark chips) that provide nutrients for the vines.
Mulch material with a high nutrient content can be chosen in nutrient-poor vineyards
[q] What are three advantages of mulching?
- No chemicals, so can be used in organic and biodynamic viticulture
- Can reduce water evaporation from the soil (good in dry climates)
- Can be a source of nutrients and humus, which promotes soil biological activity and good soil structure
What are the disadvantages of mulching?
- Bulky, so expensive to transport and spread
- Only effective if applied in a thick layer, so a lot is usually required
- Can increase vigor because vine has no competition for water or nutrients
[q] Under what circumstances is irrigation a necessary component of vineyard design and establishment?
- If the vineyard is in an area likely to receive very little water through the growing season;
- If the vineyard has very free-draining soils
[q] From a sustainability standpoint, what are some ways to increase the efficiency of water use?
Use water-efficient irrigation systems and techniques (e.g. dripper systems and regulated deficit irrigation)
Use of drought-tolerant grape varieties (e.g. Grenache), and rootstocks (e.g. 140R)
Reducing evaporation (e.g. by applying a mulch)
Reducing competition (e.g. weed removal)
Increasing humus in the soil to improve water retention (e.g. adding compost)
Promoting vine root growth to run deep into the soil (e.g. through cultivation)
[q] Why is a high salt level in water bad for the vine??
- High salt content in water makes it difficult for vine roots to take up water
- Vine becomes dehydrated and the green parts of the vine start to wilt and will eventually die
[q] What are the advantages of drip irrigation?
- Economic use of water
- Can control water supply to individual rows or blocks of vines, tailoring management of the vineyard and potentially higher yields and quality
- Liquid fertiliser can be added to the water supply – this is called fertigation)
- Can be used on slopes
[q] What are the disadvantages of drip irrigation?
- Expensive to install, but maintenance costs are moderate
- Drippers can become blocked
- build up of algae, bacteria or high levels of minerals/salts
- Required maintenance which means labor costs
- Cannot be used in frost protection (aspersion) as the drippers are below the upper parts of the vine
[q] Name three other types of irrigation besides drip irrigation
[q] What is flood irrigation?
Water is stored behind a sluice and released at a scheduled time to flood the vineyard
Cheap to install and maintain, but inefficient as a lot of the water is not taken up by the vine
Can also only be used on flat or gently sloping land
[q] What is channel irrigation?
Water flows through furrows dug between rows, which can help increase efficiency of water use
Not suitable where water supply is limited
Common in Argentina because of abundant water from the Andes
[q] What are the advantages of overhead sprinklers?
- Shower water over the vineyard
- Can be used as a method of frost protection (aspersion)
[q] What are the disadvantages of overhead sprinklers?
- Expensive to install and maintain
- Use a relatively large amount of water compared to drip irrigation
[q] What is regulated deficit irrigation (RDI)?
A system that times and regulates the amount of irrigation so the vine is put under mild-to-moderate water stress for a specified time within the growing season
[q] When is RDI used in a vine’s annual cycle?
Usually scheduled between fruit set and véraison to limit further shoot growth and encourage grape development
[q] RDI is most effective in which regions and on which soils?
Regions with a dry growing season and sandy or loam soils that dry out and can be re-wet quickly.
RDI isn’t useful in regions with high rainfall or clay soils, which take a long time to dry out
[q] What are the benefits of RDI?
- Vine growth and grape development better controlled
- Less water can be used
- Mild stress between fruit set and véraison can be beneficial
[q] What are the disadvantages of RDI?
- Prolonged or extreme stress can lead to reduction in yield and quality
- Often results in lower yields
- Costs to monitor equipment
Why is RDI a favored technique for black grapes?
RDI can reduce grape size which increases the ratio of skins to juice, thereby increasing the concentration of anthocyanins and tannins (which are often seen as signs of quality)
What is ‘dry farming’?
For grape growers in areas with limited rainfall in the growing season, it’s the choice of not using any form of irrigation.
Dry farming can lead to lower yields but potential improvement in grape quality
[q] Define canopy management
The organization of the vine’s shoots, leaves and fruit in pursuance of maximizing grape yield and quality
[q] What are six general aims of canopy management?
Promote air circulation to minimize disease risk;
Maximize sunlight exposure to the canopy;
Reduce shade within the canopy;
Produce a uniform microclimate for the fruit to encourage even ripening;
Balance vegetative (e.g. tendril production) and reproductive functions (e.g. inflorescences) of the vine;
Arrange the canopy to facilitate harvest, whether for machine or hand
[q] How can dense canopies increase fungal disease pressure?
Poor air circulation means the canopy requires more time to dry out, creating damp conditions suitable for fungal disease
Dense canopies make it more difficult for sprays to reach all areas of the canopy
What are the effects in grapes from a vine’s increased photosynthetic capacity (read: good canopy management)?
Increased sugar levels in grapes;
Greater polymerization of tannins, which means less bitterness;
Improved anthocyanin development in black grapes;
Increased levels of some favorable aromas (precursors and compounds);
Decreased malic acid – warmer grape temperatures lead to more malic acid being broken down in cellular respiration;
Decreased methoxypyrazines (herbaceous character);
Optimizing canopy management means the vine can ripen larger yields
When considering canopy management and vine balance, what are the potential consequences of under-cropping (if fruit yield is too low in relation to the vine’s vigor)?
- Shoot growth continues through the vine cycle because there is not much fruit to ripen;
- These growing shoots and leaves compete with the grapes for sugar and other compounds, potentially negatively affecting grape formation and ripening;
- Can lead to a dense, shady canopy and lower quality fruit due to lack of sunlight interception;
- May result in low yields the next year due to reduced bud fruitfulness;
- low yields in the next season may lead to under-cropping in that year and then the vine enters what is known as ‘a vegetative cycle’
[q] When considering canopy management and vine balance, what are the potential consequences of over-cropping (if fruit yield is too high in relation to the vine’s vigor)?
Vine may accumulate sugars from the carbohydrates stored in the trunks, cordons, and roots;
- the vine needs these carbohydrates in the winter and following spring, and too high a crop load can weaken the vine in future years
[q] Achieving correct balance in a vine is influenced by these two main factors
- The vine’s growing environment;
- does the vine have access to the resources it needs?
- The vine itself;
- is the vine moderately or highly vigorous?
[q] What are the techniques comprising canopy management?
- Site assessment (to determine ideal grape variety, rootstock vigor, planting density and row orientation);
- Vine training;
- Vine trellising;
- Winter pruning;
- Summer pruning;
- Overall plant vigor management (nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, cover cropping…)
[q] What are some summer pruning techniques?
Green harvesting (also known as crop thinning)
[q] What is pinching and can it be mechanized?
Pinching is the removal the shoot tips at flowering to improve fruit set.
Pinching cannot be mechanized
[q] What is meant by ‘vine density’?
[a] The number of vines planted per hectare of vineyard
[q] Give examples of low vine density and high vine density
Low vine density: a few hundred vines per hectare
High vine density: over 10,000 vines per hectare
[q] Optimum vine density is influenced by what?
Vigor of the vine
Type of trellising system used
What access is needed between the vines (tractors, humans, channels…)
[q] What are the factors that influence row orientation?
- prevailing wind
- shape of field (does it have a long side?)
- slopes (how steep are they?)
[q] What orientation is generally considered the one that provides the most even sunlight exposure through the canopy?
When establishing a vineyard, the most appropriate vine training and trellising methods will depend on:
- The vigor of the vine;
- Topography of the site;
- slopes can be too steep for trellising, which means vines may need to grow on stakes (e.g. Mosel);
- Will there be a need for mechanizaion?
[q] Vine training is split into two broad categories:
- Head training
- Cordon training
What is the difference between a low-trained vine and a high-trained vine?
Low-trained vines have short trunks
these benefit from heat released by the soil and provide greater protection from wind;
High-trained vines have long trunks
these avoid frost better and make manual interventions easier (e.g. harvesting).
[q] Describe head training
Usually just a trunk with short stubs growing out of the trunk (little permanent wood other than the trunk)
Can be either spur-pruned or replacement cane-pruned
[q] Describe cordon training
A trunk with usually one or two permanent, horizontal arms called “cordons”
Usually spur-pruned (spurs look like “fingers” growing out of the arm/cordon, see photo)
Mechanized harvesting easier
Takes longer to establish than head training because of the amount of permanent wood
[q] What is pruning, and when does pruning take place?
Pruning is the removal of unwanted parts of the vine.
Pruning happens in summer and in the winter
[q] What are the two types of winter pruning?
Replacement cane pruning
What is spur pruning?
Is it easier or harder to carry out than replacement cane pruning?
Last growing season’s spurs that have become woody that have been cut back to have only 2-3 buds.
Spur pruning is easier to carry out than replacement cane pruning, and it can often be mechanised
What is replacement cane pruning?
Is replacement cane pruning more simple or more complex than spur pruning?
Replacement cane pruning is the annual removal of the previous winter’s cane and replacement with a one-year old cane. These canes are 1-2 ft long and can have between 8-20 buds.
They are typically laid down horizontally and need to be tied to a trellis for support and positioning.
Replacement cane pruning is more complex than spur pruning. It requires skill to pick suitable canes and train them properly.
Grape growers use varying techniques to determine how vigorous the vine is and how many buds need to be retained to keep the vine in balance
What are trellises?
[a] Permanent structures of posts and wires that help to support and position the vine’s shoots
Vineyards can be untrellised or trellised.
When a vineyard is untrellised, how are the vines typically trained?
What climates + conditions is this training best suited for?
Head-trained and spur-pruned (also known as Bush vines)
Best suited for hot + sunny climates with dry conditions.
Note! Bush vines are not suitable for mechanized harvest
[q] What are the advantages of trellising vineyards?
[a] Shoots can be spread out to maximize light interception and increase air flow through the canopy (reducing risk of fungal disease);
Ability to position the fruit in one area to mechanization
[q] What are the disadvantages of trellising vineyards?
Expensive to establish, especially for more complex systems
Trellises need maintenance
Name one of the most common and simple types of trellising systems
Vertical shoot positioning (VSP)
[q] How are the shoots trained in Vertical shoot positioning (VSP)?
The vine’s shoots are trained vertically and are held in place on the trellis forming a single narrow canopy.
VSP is best suited to vines with low or moderate vigor
Vertical shoot positioning (VSP) can be used on which one of the following:
Head-trained, replacement cane-pruned vines only
Cordon-trained, spur-pruned vines only
Both head-trained, replacement cane-pruned vines and cordon-trained, spur pruned vines
Both head-trained, replacement cane-pruned vines and cordon-trained, spur-pruned vines
[q] When Vertical shoot positioning (VSP) is used on replacement cane-pruned vines, what is this type of training called?
One cane is retained in Single Guyot; two in Double Guyot
Highly vigorous vines need more complex training systems since their canopies would become too dense with VSP.
What other types of complex training systems can be used for vines with high vigor?
Geneva Double Curtain (GDC) or Lyre – canopy split horizontally;
Smart-Dyson or Scott-Henry – canopy split vertically
[q] What are the objectives of summer pruning?
Encourage grape ripening
Reduce risk of fungal disease
Make vineyard easier to manage
[q] Give three reasons why you would use debudding (disbudding)
Manage vine yields;
Manage vine balance;
Remove poorly positioned buds (e.g. downward-facing buds, or too close together)
Note: buds can be removed from fruit-bearing shoots and non-fruit bearing shoots. In the latter case, it’s done to direct the vine’s resources to the buds on fruit-bearing shoots
What is the difference between shoot removal and leaf removal?
Shoot removal is the removal of shoots (usually lateral shoots) that are infertile or poorly positioned to help maintain an organized, open canopy.
Leaf removal is the removal of just leaves to reduce shading of fruit and enhance ripening, particularlty if it’s done just before véraison; it also improves air circulation and spray penetration.
Note: excessive leaf removal exposes the grapes to too much sun and heat and can lead to sunburn.
Crop thinning/green harvesting:
What is it?
Why is it done?
What happens if you do it near véraison?
The removal of whole bunches of grapes.
It’s done to increase ripeness, uniformity of ripeness, and quality of grapes left on the vine (especially if the vine experienced issues such as frost or uneven bud burst).
If done near véraison it can enhance ripening and potentially quality
[x] GOOD JOB!! [restart]